Steel Products Explained
These sections are produced in several stages with different shapes and sizes. Steel sections also contain a large percentage of iron, 0.16-0.25 carbon, and other elements such as slab, steel billet, and bloom.
Applications of Steel Sections
Steel sections are used in various industries, such as construction (building structure), shipbuilding, structure construction, tool-making, vehicles, crossings, and bridges. Steel is also used in concrete to compensate for its tensile strength and ductility.
Types of Steel Sections
Angular steel sections
This is a steel surface with an L cross-section.
This iron or steel part has a 90-degree angle for much greater structural strength and performance under point pressure. This shape is also one of the most widely-used steel sections as it can be easily cut, punched, machined, or even welded.
L-sections are produced in 6-meter branches, which consumers can cut into smaller lengths based on their needs.
L-sections are used for fabricating floor systems in residential apartments, parts of lightweight triangular structures, and so on.
This is a steel surface with a C or U-shaped cross-section, which gives the channel section a uniform structure and good load-bearing performance.
Channel beams can be normal or meshed:
Normal channel beams are used as beams in wall construction for warehouses, workshops, lightweight ceilings, door, window, and vehicle frames, walls and ceilings of trailers, railings, trusses or protective rails, and in construction of marine equipment.
Mesh channel sections are used for building steel shelves.
Hollow structural sections
These sections are produced as circular and profile steel pipes (square, rectangular, and triangular sections) in different dimensions and sizes and used for constructing beams columns, beams, and trusses. These sections are made from hot and cold-rolled sheets.
- Circular hollow sections
Pipe sections are not angled or bent and the uniform circular cross-section gives these sections good strength and resistance even in very thin variants.
These are manufactured using only cold-rolled and hot-rolled sheets. Thicker industrial variants are used for scaffolding, bridge trusses, fencing, and so on whereas thinner variants are used in manufacturing consumer goods such as furniture, tables and chairs, and even part-making.
- Square hollow section steel pipes
These have a uniform cross-section that simplifies the connection of various parts.
- Rectangular hollow section steel pipes
Finer variants of these pipes have decorative applications. Due to the angular cross-section and unequal sides, manufacturers face more challenges during welding due to the greater need for precision and surface preparation to ensure better tensile performance. As a result, each corner of the profile will perform differently.
- Triangular hollow section steel pipes
These pipes are mainly used for producing decorative products. The limited application of these sections has led to a significantly smaller diversity of dimensions and thicknesses compared to other shapes.
These sections can be produced by combining two angular sections and are used in trusses for strengthening structures.
I-shaped sections or beams
These have an I or H-shaped cross-section. These sections are produced in various sizes from 75 x 50 mm to 600 x 210 mm and are used as building beams or columns. The beam body consists of two main parts, namely the web (the middle section of the beam with excellent shear strength for preventing collapse or failure) and the flange (two sections perpendicular to the mid-section).
Moreover, beams are strong and do not easily bend under pressure, making them effective for building columns and structures.
Form-Based Categorization of I-Beams
These beams are I-shaped with fixed flange thickness and are produced in Iran and European countries.
These beams are I-shaped, where a lower web thickness results in a lower flange thickness. Most of these beams are produced and offered in the Chinese and Russian markets.
Wide-flange beams are H-shaped and have longer flanges than IPE beams. These beams can be heavy or light, where the letter V next to the name (IPBv) denotes heavy beams and the letter L denotes light beams.
Bars have circular cross-sections with 5-250 mm diameters.
They are used for manufacturing various machinery, nails, and nuts and bolts, and smaller sizes are even used in rod wires.
Indentation refers to the longitudinal or lateral ridges created along bars during rolling. The various types of indented bars are categorized into three categories, namely twisted indented bars, spiral indented bars, and hybrid indented bars. These bars are used in construction and concrete reinforcement.
- A1 plain non-indented bar
- A2 semi-plain bar with normal indentation
- A3 hard bar with twisted indentation
- A4 hard bar with twisted indentation
Flat sections are used for building doors and windows and are produced with 10-400 mm widths and 3-40 mm thicknesses.
Straps are cut from the surface of metal sections. With respect to the manufacturing process, these products are either rolled or machined. They are used for meeting the need for high resistance, as in factory stairs, building stairs, and floor covering.
Steel sheets are produced using the rolling method. Rolling is a metal forming method where steel billets move through tightening narrow rollers to produce the final sheet in the required thickness. Sheets are produced in indented, cold-rolled, galvanized, hot-rolled, and other types.
Plate sections are made of light metal sheets that are cut and flattened using a machine. In these sections, these sheets are used to produce a rhombohedral lattice.
Wire rod include a wide range of products, such as various pressed, fence, European, and gabion wires, various hot-rolled and galvanized rod wires, fence posts, mesh, and lath. These products have industrial and construction applications. For example, hot-rolled Wire rod are used for fastening reinforcements and building foundations.